HomeTopicsRegionsSecret SocietiesTemples-1Temples-2AssociationsHistoryViolence
Violence 2DeathReburialWomenWomen-2IntermarriageOpiumOpium 2Opium-3
About UsLinksBibliographyPropertyArtifactsCINARC Book(s)

金山西北角 - 华裔研究中心
This page was last updated: August 30, 2018
Intended mainly for archaeologists and economic historians, this page presents a comprehensive list, in alphabetic order, of all the opium brand names known to the editors to have been used by North American Chinese.  The list represents a substantial expansion of a pioneering effort by Priscilla Wegars, who may have been the first North America-based researcher to recognize the importance of the Chinese characters stamped on opium cans.

When opium was bought and sold in the U.S. and Canada, the brand names were originally pronounced in standard Cantonese or in the Taishanese dialect.  No widely recognized method for spelling either language with the Roman alphabet exists at present, and in those days romanization methods were so arbitrary that one often cannot work backward from a name mentioned in an English-language newspaper to the original name in Chinese characters.  Hence, we have listed the following brand names according to their pronunciation in the Mandarin language (or Putonghua), using the standardized Pinyin romanization method.  When we know how a name was actually spelled in contemporary English-language periodicals, labels, or shop signs, that version is given in violet and [brackets]. 

All of the following brand names (except those on the KTW inventory) occur as stamped impressions on actual opium cans like those shown on the Opium and Opium-2 pages of this website.  Cans with each brand name have been found at one or more sites in North America.  Several have been found in Australia as well.
Chang Sheng Zao  昌盛 造                        AA only
Cheng He Zhan [“Sing Wo Chan”]  成和棧         RR
Da Yuan Zao  逹源造                          W, AA
Da Zhu  大竹       KTW
Fu An Zao  富安造       AA only 
Fu De  [“Fook Duk”]  福德            Q, RR, AA
Fu Long [Fook Lung”]  福隆 (see Shanghuan Fu Long)  Many sites 
Fu Xing ["Fook Hing"] 福興           AA only
Guang An Long   [“Kwong On Lung”]  廣安隆RR partial
Guang An Tai  [“Kwong On Tai”]  廣安泰             RR, C
Guang He Fa  廣和發          AA only
Guang Wan Feng  [“Quong Man Fung”] 廣萬蘴    C
He Long  [“Hop Lung”]   合隆  (see Xianggang He Long)       Many sites
Hua Xing  [“Wah Hing”]  華興  (see Xianggang Hua Xing)       AA only
Ji Cheng Gongsi  集成公司 W, AA
Jin Li Zao  金利造        AA only
Jun Chang Zao  均昌造W, AA, C
Li Chang Zao  麗昌造   W, AA
Li Yuan [“Lai Yuen”] 麗源  (see Shanghuan Li Yuan)     Many, C
Long Ji  隆記 KTW
Qian Tai [“Kin Tai”] 乾泰  (see Yudouli Qian Tai)   C
Quan Heng Zao  全亨造       AA only
Rui Yuan Zao  瑞源造          AA only
Shanghuan Fu Long [“Sheungwan Fook Long”] 上環福隆     Many sites
Shanghuan Li Yuan  [“Sheungwan Lai Yuen”] 上環麗源               Many sites
Shanghuan Xin Yuan [“Sheungwan Shon Yuen”] 上環信源          C 
-Shanghuan Zhao Long 上環兆隆         AA only
Si  Ju Zao  泗 聚造               AA, C
Tai Xun  [“Tai Soon”]  泰巽 (see Yudouli Tai Xun)   (AA) C
Tai Yuan Zao  [“Tai Yune”]  泰源造 (see Yudouli Tai Yune)   AA, RBC, C
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----
Tong Heng Zao  同亨造       W, AA, C
Xianggang He Long  [“Hong Kong Hop Lung”]  香港合隆      Q, W, AA
Xianggang Hua Xing   [“Hong Kong Wah Hing”]  香港華興    AA only
Xianggang Wan He Feng  [“Hong Kong Man Wo Feng”]  香港萬和蘴   Q, A
Xie De Long  [“Hip Duk Long”]  恊徳隆 C
Xin Yuan [“Shon Yuen”]  信源  (see Shanghuan Xin Yuan)   C
Wan He Feng  [“Man Wo Feng”]  萬和蘴  (see Xianggang Wan He Feng)  Q, A
Yu Yuan Zao  裕傆造  AA only
Yudouli Qian Tai  [”Wik To Lei Kin Tai”]  域多厘乾泰 C   
Yudouli Tai Xun  [“Wik To Lei Tai Soong”]  域多厘泰巽      (AA), C
Yudouli Tai Yuan Zao [“Wik To Lei Tai Yune”]  域多厘泰源造    AA, C 
Zhang De  掌德  AA only
Zhao Long  兆隆  (see Shanghuan Zhao Long)           AA only
Zhi He Xiang  [“Chi Wo Cheung”]  致和祥                         RR             
W = Weisz's finds at Northern Pacific camps (Montana); C = Cariboo: Quesnelle and Barkerville Museums (British Columbia), Q = Queensland (Australia) finds,  RBC = Royal British Columbia Museum (Victoria), RR = Williams Lake (British Columbia) collections; AACC = Asian American Comparative Collection ( Moscow, Idaho),  KTW = Kwong Tai Wo (Grass Valley, California) inventory.

Opium cans were shown or sent to us by (W) Gary Weisz of Sandpoint, Idaho; by (C) the staff of the Quesnelle Museum and by Bill Quackenbush at Barkerville, both in British Columbia; by (RR) the owners of the North American Pioneer Chinese Virtual Museum in Williams Lake, British Columbia; and by (AACC) Priscilla Wegars of the Asian American Comparative Collection in Moscow, Idaho.  Photos of (Q) opium cans in Australia were sent to us by Rob Grant of Chillagoe in Queensland.  The Kwong Tai Wo (KTW) inventory is from textual, not artifactual, evidence, preserved in the records of a Chinese store in Grass Valley, California, as presented in an article by Ruth Ann Sando and Devid L. Felton in Priscilla Wegars ed., Hidden Hetitage (1993).